Pain Interference Patterns Longitudinal Survey Measures

Measures for the longitudinal survey included:

Demographics

  • Age
  • Race
  • Hispanic/Latino heritage
  • Relationship status
  • Education level attained
  • Number in household
  • Household income
  • Employment status
  • Volunteer status
  • Benefits received (e.g., social security, housing assistance)
  • Healthcare Insurance Coverage
  • Transportation access

Disability Screening questions from the American Community Survey:

  • Are you deaf or do you have serious difficulty hearing?
  • Are you blind, or do you have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  • Because of a physical, mental or emotional condition, do you have serious difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions?
  • Do you have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  • Do you have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  • Because of a physical, mental or emotional condition, do you have difficulty doing errands alone?

The Orientation to Happiness (six items measuring meaning, pleasure and engagement)

  • Peterson, Christopher, Park, Nansook & Seligman, Martin. (2005). Orientations to Happiness and Life Satisfaction: The Full Life Versus the Empty Life. Journal of Happiness Studies, 6, 25-41.
  • Park, Nansook, Peterson, Christopher & Ruch, Willibald. (2009). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction in twenty-seven nations. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 4 (4), 273-279.

Health Related Quality of Life-14 

  • How many days was your physical health not good (30 days)?
  • How manay days was your mental health not good (30 days)?
  • How many days did your poor physical/mental health keep you from
  • your usual activities such as self-care, work or recreation (30 days)? "
  • How many days did your pain make it hard for you to do usual activities (30 days)?
  • How many days have you felt sad, blue or depressed (30 days)?
  • How many days have you felt worried,tense or anxious (l30 days)?
  • How many days did you get enough rest or sleep (30 days)?
  • How many days have you felt very healthy and full of energy (30 days)?

Moriarty, D. G., Zack, M. M., & Kobau, R. (2003). The centers for disease control and prevention's healthy days measures - population tracking of perceived physical and mental health over time. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 1, 37.

Health Conditions and Problems

Listing of Health Conditions

Center for Disease Control and Prevention. National Health Interview Survey. Retrieved 5/15,2005

  • Have you visited an ER or urgent care provider (past 3 months)?
  • How many nights have you spent in the hospital (past 6 months)?
  • How confident are you filling out medical forms by yourself?
  • How many medications prescribed by a doctor do you take?
  • How many of these prescribed medications help you manage pain?
  • Have the # of pain mds you take changed (lat 30 days)?
  • Have you ever used CAM such as herbs, dietary supplements, acupuncture, meditation or any similar therapies?

Chew, L.D., Griffin, J.M., Parin, M.R., Noorbaloochi, S., Grill, J.P., Syder, A., Bradley, K.A., Nugent, S.M., Baines, A.D., VanRyn, M. (2008). Validation of Screening Questions for Limited Health Literacy in Large VA Outpatient Population. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(5):561-566

Issues Related to Pain

  • Current pain intensity (0-10 scale)
  • Average pain intensity over the past week (0-10 scale)
  • Worst pain you have experienced over the past week (0-10 scale)
  • Least pain experienced over the past week (0-10 scale)
  • Overall level of pain past week (none, mild, moderate, severe)

Dworkin, R.H., Turk, D.C., Farrar, J.T., Haythornthwaite, J.A., Jensen, M.P., Katz, N.P., Kerns, R.D., Stucki, G., Allan, R.R., Bellamy, N., Carr, D.B., Chandler, J., Cowan, P., Dionne, R., Galer, B.S., Hertz, S., Jadad, A.R., Kramer, L.D., Manning, D.C., Martin, S., McCormick, C.G.,McDermott, M.P., McGrath, P., Quessy, S., Rappaport, B.A., Robbins, W., Robinson, J.P., Rothman, M., Royal, M.A., Simon, L., Stauffer, J.W., Stein, W., Tollett, J., Wernicke, J., & Witter, J. (2005). Core outcome measures for chronic pain clinical trials: IMMPACT recommendations. Pain, 113, 9-19.

Pain Management

  • Rest to manage pain (past 30 days)
  • Guard to manage pain (past 30 days)
  • Ignore to manage pain (past 30 days)
  • Pace activities to manage pain (past 30 days)
  • Ask others for help to manage pain (past 30 days)

Jensen, M.P., Moore, M.R., Bockow, T.B., Ehde, D.M., Engel, J.M. (2011) Psychosocial Factors and Adjustment to Chronic Pain in Persons with Physical Disabilities: A Systematic Review. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 92 (1): 146-160

  • Over the counter pain medication such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or Tylenol
  • Prescription pain medications prescribed by a doctor
  • Exercises such as stretching, walking, water therapy, or Thai Chi
  • Massage, physical therapy, or occupational therapy
  • Relaxation techniques like deep breathing, meditation, progressive relaxation, or self-hypnosis
  • Biofeedback such as thermal biofeedback, brain wave -EEG, muscle tension - EMG
  • Electrotherapy like transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, - TENS, transcranial stimulation
  • Chiropractic adjustments
  • Acupuncture
  • Hot or cold packs
  • Pain Catastrophizing
  • I worry all the time about whether the pain will end.
  • I feel I can't go on.
  • It's terrible and I think it's never going to get better.
  • It's awful and I feel that it overwhelms me.
  • I feel I can't stand it anymore.
  • There's nothing I can do to reduce the intensity of the pain.

 

Pain Interference

  • How much did pain interfere with your day to day activities?
  • How much did pain interfere with work around the home?
  • How much did pain interfere with your ability to participate in social activities?
  • How much did pain interfere with your enjoyment of life?
  • How much did pain interere with things you usually do for fun?
  • How much did pain interfere with your enjoyment of social activities?
  • How much did pain interfere with your household chores?
  • How much did pain interfere with your family life?
  • How much did pain interfere with your ability to get a good night's sleep?

 

Secondary Conditions

  • Fatigue
  • Physical Fitness/Conditioning Problems
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Sleep Problems/Disturbances
  • Side Effects from Medications
  • Chronic Pain

Seekins, T., Smith, N., McCleary, T., Clay, J. A., & Walsh, J. (1990). Secondary disability prevention: Involving consumers in the development of a public health surveillance instrument. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 1(3), 21-35.

Participation in the Community

Trips

  • Grocery Store
  • Doctors or other healthcare providers
  • Pharmacies
  • Restaurants
  • Large box stores such as Walmart or Home Depot
  • Pubic parks or recreation areas
  • Exercise facilities
  • Shopping malls

Activities

  • Active Recreation such as exercise, sports or fishing
  • Socializing outside the home
  • Religious activities such as church services
  • Community activities such as voting, meetings
  • Entertainment such as movies or sporting events

Major Activities 

  • Employment (hours)
  • School or Education (hours)
  • Volunteering (hours)

Gray, D., Hollingsworth, H., Stark, S., & Morgan, K. (2006).

PARTS/M: Psychometric properties of a measure of participation for people with mobility impairments and limitations. Archives of Physical Medicine Rehabilitation, 87, 189-197.

Gray DB, Morgan KA, Dashner J, Garrett L, Hollingsworth HH. Personal and environmental influences on the community participation by people with mobility, visual and hearing impairments and limitations. American Public Health Association, October, 2012, San Francisco, CA

 Barriers or Constraints

  • It was easy to get in and out of my house.
  • My community had too few curb cuts.
  • I felt safe when leaving my home.
  • Poor air quality or other pollutants bothered me.
  • The weather was too bad to get out.
  • Buildings were accessible to me.
  • I didn't have transportation.
  • I had the assistive equipment I needed.
  • My health was limiting me too much.
  • I had a hard time thinking and concentrating.
  • I was too busy to do everything I needed to do.
  • People's attitudes toward me were positive.
  • My daily self-care needs took too much energy.
  • I had the help I needed.
  • I was too tired.

Gray, D., Hollingsworth, H., Stark, S., Morgan, K. (2008). A subjective measure of environmental facilitators and barriers to participation for people with mobility limitations. Disability and Rehabilitation, 30(6), 434-457

Satisfaction with Level of Participation

  • How satisfied were you with your level of participation (over the last 7 days)?

Frustration with Barriers

  • To what extent were you frustrated with barriers you encountered (over the last 7 days)?