Pain Interference Patterns Longitudinal Survey Sample

The study sample included 525 adults aged 18 to 75 who lived in a small Western city and provide a “yes” response to at least one of five disability screening items used in the American Community Survey (ACS) to identify people with disabilities from within the general population.  These questions include:

  1. Are you deaf or do you have serious difficulty hearing?
  2. Are you blind or do you have serious difficulty seeing even when wearing glasses?
  3. Do you have serious difficulty walking or climbing stairs?
  4. Do you have difficulty dressing or bathing?
  5. Because of a physical, mental, or emotional condition, do you have difficulty doing errands alone such as visiting a doctor’s office or shopping?

We collected 601 postcards from our participant recruitment procedures (see below), from whom we collected 525 surveys.  Then, we mailed follow-up surveys approximately every four months over the course of 18 months and received surveys from 488, 476 and 460 surveys in the second through fourth data collection waves.  There 19 individuals who passed away during the study, which indicates an 8.8% attrition rate during the study.  Descriptive statistics for the first wave of data are listed below.

 

 
Demographic Characteristics of  Survey Respondents (n=525)
Variable n %
Gender
    Male 217 41.3
    Female 307 58.5
    Unknown 1 0.2
Ethnicity
    White 507 96.6
    Non-white 18 3.4
Relationship Status
    Married 244 46.5
    No Longer Married 187 35.5
    Never married 54 10.3
    Member of unmarried couple 33 6.3
    Unknown 7 1.0
Education
    < Grade 12 38 7.2
    Grade 12 or GED 112 21.3
    Some college or tech training or Associate’s 200 38.1
    Bachelor’s 111 21.1
    Master’s or higher 63 12.0
    Unknown 1 0.2
Income
    <$10,000 65 12.4
    $10,001-20,000 102 19.4
    $20,001-40,000 125 23.8
    $40,001-60,000 93 17.7
    $60,001-80,000 52 9.9
    $80,001-100,000 23 4.4
    >$100,000 24 4.6
    Unknown 41 7.8
Employment
    Full-time >30 hrs/week 104 19.8
    Part-time 1-30 hrs/week 43 8.2
    Not employed 374 71.2
    Unknown 4 0.7
Volunteering
    Weekly Volunteer 46 8.8
    Occasional volunteer 194 37.0
    Does not volunteer 279 53.1
    Unknown 6 1.1
Impairment
    Deaf/hard of hearing 146 27.8
    Blind or difficulty seeing 66 12.6
    Concentration, memory, or decision making difficulty 149 28.4
    Difficulty walking or climbing stairs 312 59.4
    Difficulty dressing or bathing 135 25.7
    Difficulty running errands 177 33.7
    No reported impairment 84 16.0
Equipment Used
    Needs physical assistance from others 119 22.7
    Uses a walker, cane, crutch, or brace 175 33.3
    Manual or power wheelchair users 52 9.9
    No equipment or assistance needed 113 21.5